SIGMUND FREUD And PSYCHOLOGY
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in a area now called Czechoslovakia. He moved to Vienna, Austria as a small child where he remained until 1938 Freud then moved to England and remained there until his death one year later. Freud’s major work was done at the University of Vienna in the school of medicine.
In 1884-1887, he did his first work on cocaine which he later discontinued because of his concern of the drugs addictive qualities. He then began designing his Psychoanalytic approach. The psychoanalytic approach is a non-experimental school of psychology. It was developed in the latter part of the 19th century and it is also known as second force psychology. This approach is mainly concerned with the motives and internal needs that influenced the developmental process. This approach deals with the process of socialization because it involves redirecting unacceptable impulses into more socially acceptable forms.
Freud’s Theories Of Human Psyche
A. Underlying all of Freud’s thinking was the idea that the body is the sole source of all mental experiences.
B. Mental events are brought about by conscious or unconscious intention and are determined by events that proceed it.
II. Types of Consciousness
1. small part of the mind.
2. includes everything we are aware of in a given moment.
1. storehouse of unacceptable images.
2. within the unconscious are instinctual elements that we are unaware of.
1. part of the unconscious.
2. holds memories that the conscious needs in order to perform its functions.
A. Source-where the needs arise.
B. Aim- to reduce the need.
C. Impetus- the amount of energy etc. used to satisfy the instinct D. Object
1. Thing or action that satisfies the original aim.
2. Human instincts only initiate a need for action.
1. Thantos- Death instinct
2. Libido- Life instinct
IV. Systems of Personality
1. totally unconscious, in the beginning this is all that exists.
2. Pleasure Principle
a. the demand for immediate satisfaction of our bodily needs, hunger and thirst.
b. avoid pain and seek pleasure.
3. the instinctual nature of man.
4. the seat of the libido (psychic energy associated with instinctual drives)
5. primary process (dreams and fantasies in the unconscious)
1. to survive one must begin to come to terms with the objective world.
2. Reality Principle a. the ability to predict control over the environment is the ego functioning.
3. executor of the personality.
4. emerges from the id without experience
5. secondary process (involves learning from real experiences) 6. has its most difficult task controlling id urges.
7. strong, it cooperates both with the id and superego.
1. the goal here is not pleasure rather doing the right thing.
2. achieving perfection as defined by moral code.
3. made of two components
b. ego ideal
Each thing we do is the end result of whatever compromise we work out among our primitive desires, the constraints of reality, and our moral code. Conscious is the built-in reinforcement process that makes a person feel satisfied when doing right and guilty when doing wrong. In a Functional Personality, the ID tells us what we want to do, the superego tells us what we should do, and the ego decides what we can do.
V. Personality Dynamics/ Motivating Factors
1. an unpleasant feeling that people try hard to avoid or reduce.
2. can be evoked by failing to measure up to one’s superego.
3. a signal that a threatening thought is about to enter the unconscious.
4. ego reacts to such a threat by defending itself.
a. reality anxiety – involves fear of tangible dangers in the real world.
b. neurotic anxiety-has basis in childhood in a conflict between the id and superego.
c. moral anxiety-a conflict between the id & superego; it is primarily a fear of one’s own conscience.
B. Defense Mechanisms: means by which individuals rechannel or redirect inhibited libidinal impulses.
a. Repression: means of preventing an idea, feeling, or memory from reaching consciousness.
b. Projection: denial of one’s own unacceptable desires & the discovery of these desires in the behavior of other people.
c. Reaction Formation
e. Rationalization: the process of inventing an acceptable reason for a behavior that is really being performed for another, less acceptable reason.
f. Sublimation: finding a socially acceptable outlet for sexual or aggressive urges.
2. The unconscious involves some distortions of reality.
a. Involves assigning the cause of anxiety to an external source.
b. If a given source of anxiety arises at a later stage, one way of solving the problem is to return to an earlier stage.
VI. Stages of Development
A. Oral Stage (birth to 1 year)
1. crucial in forming the adult personality.
2. pleasure received from eating, sucking, and biting
3. fixation at this stage leads to the oral personality
a. a person who passively receives help from others
b. conforms to the wishes of others.
4. fixation at a later oral stage leads to oral aggressive personality a. those who need to abuse others.
B. Anal Stage (1 year)
1. crucial in forming the adult personality.
2. the child takes pleasure in defecation
3. when toilet training begins he/she is forced to regulate behavior.
4. controlling one’s bowel functioning is a way of conforming to societies demands
5. Anal personalities
a. Anal Retentive
b. Anal Expulsive
C. Phallic Stage (4 years old)
1. masturbation is discovered to be pleasurable
2. males and females here have different experiences
3. Oedipal Complex
a. Castration anxiety
1. causes boy to give up his sexual longings for his mother to identify with the father for fear the father will castrate him
2. one feature of this resolution is the development of a strong superego.
b. Unresolved Oedipal Complex
1. male is likely to become homosexual or heterosexual that does not really like women but only uses them as sex objects-phallic personality
4. Electra Complex a. girls love their mother, but feel that their organs are inferior (penis envy).
b. resent the mother for producing this defect.
c. never develops strong ego due to lack of castration anxiety.
d. Unresolved Electra Complex may lead to homosexual tendencies.
5. Basic personality characteristics by the time he or she is six are established.
D. Latency Period (Puberty)
1. loses interest in anything sexual 2. designates into own sex play-group.
E. Genital Stages (Adult)
1. adult reacts to a person of the opposite sex with desire and affection.
2. can develop genuine friendships, love, and social attachments.
3. many people never entirely resolve the Oedipal conflict, hence never reach the genital stage. The final outcome of these various stages is the adult personality which, is shaped by the events during each stage.